Konstnärskap och lönearbete (MusPolEk 10.5)

Under sommaren 2012 postas här lösryckta avsnitt ur min doktorsavhandling, Musikens politiska ekonomi, som utges i augusti. Avsnitten är godtyckligt plockade, som russin ur en kaka, utan särskild ordning och utan de kommentarer som ligger textens notapparat. Frågor och kommentarer välkomnas!

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Avhandlingen har ställt frågan om musikerna fick sina rättigheter i egenskap av konstnärer eller i egenskap av lönearbetare. Svaret kan inte bli entydigt. Undersökningen har visat hur spänningen mellan konstnärskap och lönearbete har fortsatt att hemsöka musikens politiska ekonomi. Såväl konstnären som lönearbetaren försörjer sig genom att sälja varor, men det rör sig om olika slags varor.

Lönearbetaren säljer sin arbetskraft. På förhand sluts då en överenskommelse om vilket slags arbete som ska utföras och vilken lön som i gengäld ska betalas. Vad som sedan sker med arbetets resultat – om det säljs vidare eller skänks bort, om det konsumeras genast eller efter åtskilliga år – har ingen betydelse för lönen.

Konstnären behöver däremot inte lyda någon annans anvisningar, men får heller inga garantier för att en viss insats kommer att ge ett visst utbyte. Betalningen är oviss fram till försäljningen av den färdiga produkten – en försäljning som i vissa fall kan ske utspritt över åtskilliga år (om konstnären är rättighetshavare som tar emot royalty).

På ett abstrakt plan står alltså arbetets trygghet mot konstens frihet, även om dessa storheter inte kan vara absoluta. Det handlar om en relativ trygghet och en relativ frihet som i båda fall begränsas av det universella tvånget att sälja varor.

Det behöver knappast påpekas att lönearbete och konstnärskap kan flyta samman i den enskilde musikerns yrkesliv. Likväl innebär lagstiftningen om musikers rättigheter en institutionell åtskillnad mellan de två sätten att sälja varor. För att bli till rättssubjekt måste musikerna på något vis formaliseras till economic imaginaries. Formaliseringen bör förstås som en selektiv process som på samma gång är materiell och semiotisk.

Redan på 1930-talet fanns en tydlig skiljelinje mellan två olika idéer om musikers rättigheter. Å ena sidan fanns en auktorrättslig idé om att ge den individuella musikern en rätt till sitt eget arbetsresultat, det vill säga en möjlighet att få betalt för bruket av en viss inspelning. Å andra sidan fanns en arbetsrättslig idé om att kollektivt förbättra yrkesmusikernas villkor genom att införa en “beskattning av den mekaniska musiken till förmån för den levande”.

Teaterförbundet förordade den ena idén, Musikerförbundet den andra. På ett internationellt plan framträdde skiljelinjen tidvis som en konflikt mellan de två schweiziska städerna Bern och Genève, säte för Bernbyrån respektive ILO, som båda gjorde anspråk på att leda det internationella arbetet för musikers rättigheter.

Auktorrättskommittén utarbetade under åren 1939–56 ett slags kompromiss som sedan blev instiftad i 1960 års upphovsrättslag. Lagen gav i formell mening musikern en individuell ersättningsrätt, men föreskrev samtidigt en frivillig kollektivisering. Enda sättet att få ersättning var att överlåta sin rättighet till ett rättighetsmonopol. Tanken bakom lagen var att få Teaterförbundet och Musikerförbundet att dela makten i den nya organisationen, vars namn blev Sami. Staten delegerade alltså till Sami att hantera spänningen mellan konstnärskap och lönearbete.

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